Let’s Talk About Reparations

(Part One)

Context & Background

This week’s podcast, and the next two podcasts will explore different perspectives of the topic of various countries who were involved in the slave trade of history, with all the suffering and inhumane treatment of certain groups of society that took place, and was very much part of the fabric of those nations.  Reparations for the countries and its people who suffered in the clutches of this vile process, has long since been an issue for those countries who suffered economically and who were made to continue suffering for years afterwards, whilst those nations who were responsible for the cruelty to people and the pillaging of artifacts and resources from those poorer nations, continued to become rich in resources that did not belong to them in the first place.  The inhumanity continued long after the industry of ‘slavery’ officially ended.  It is noticeable that the voices that tell areas of the worlds population that everyone should just forgive and forget, because it all happened so long ago, are the same ones who benefited from that system whilst it was in operation. Those countries also ensured that slave owners and plantation owners were also compensated for the loss of their human stock item! Now when conversations are started on the huge immoral disconnect between those who suffered in every way imaginable, and those who benefited from the process, still throughout history, they and their nations continue to profit off the suffering of slaves and their subsequent generations and their countries of birth/heritage.  All those involved in that inhumane industry when slavery was abolished in each country were compensated for their losses, and the countries left behind saddled with debt. This series of podcasts will set out the case why this will not be forgotten, and all those countries who demanded and some continue to receive to this day, payments from countries impoverished by the slave trade and who continue to live a lower standard of living than otherwise would be necessary if those countries could invest in their own economies.

There was an article written by Afua Hirsh last year discussing Reparations and there was a section that referred to a conversation with a British Cabinet Minister and in that conversation Afua “asked the Cabinet Minister why the country had never apologised for the transatlantic slave trade. After all, this nation trafficked more enslaved Africans than almost any other  – at least 3 million on British ships – yet it has only ever expressed “regret”.  It is a strange choice of words for playing a lead role in the greatest atrocity in human history.”

Another extract from the same article:- “The minister explained to me that the UK cannot apologise, because the case against it – watertight in moral and ethical terms – might then become legal.”

“In short, Britain won’t use the language of apology, out of fear this might pave the way for reparations.”

The full article is listed in the Reference Sources below – at the end of this piece.


Definition of Reparation     (Merriam-Webster Dictionary)

A dictionary definition of what “Reparation” means is as follows:-

1a :  A repairing or keeping in repair

2a : the act of making amends, offering expiation[1], or

Something giving satisfaction for a wrong doing or injury

2b :  something done or given as amends or satisfaction

3  the payment of damages : INDEMNIFICATION

Specifically : compensation in money or materials payable by a defeated nation for damages to or expenditure sustained by another nation as a result of hostilities with the  defeated nation – usually used in plural

Discovering Bristol  –  UNITED KINGDOM

One of the Reference Sources listed at the end of this article is Discovering Bristol, in the UK  It is a website supported by charitable funds, as and when they can secure income.  Much of the site is yet to be populated, and some sections of it, have adverts or ‘dummy text’  Don’t be put off if you visit the website, because the sections that they have included are excellent, and give you a good stepping stone in terms of what to look for in other areas of the world. I am using most of the sub headings and information.  Full web links to all populated areas listed below.  I note that they have partnered with a university and other small organisations, to help them with the research and the population of the site.  As part of this research, I have tried to include websites set up by people of colour, to try and get a balance of views and the recording of the data..


Bristol and Transatlantic Slavery

“What was Britain’s role? Who was involved, what was bought and sold, who stopped it, and what is the effect of the trade today?”

Who was involved, what was bought and sold, who stopped it, and what is the effect of the trade today?

Slavery Routes

  • From Bristol to Africa

    • Bristol developed into one of the major trading ports in Britain. From at least the 14th century, Bristol was the second English city after London. The city held this position because of the economic importance of the port of Bristol. Trade at this time was based mainly on the woollen cloth produced in the surrounding counties of Somerset, Gloucestershire, Devon and Dorset. Bristol merchants were trading with Europe from at least the 11th century. To support the expansion of trade, Bristol had a shipbuilding industry and a financial industry, as well as a network of merchants with contacts in different countries. The surrounding area produced goods to trade. Bristol merchants were keen, and always looking for new areas of trade. When the opportunity came to join the developing trade to Africa and the Americas, they seized the chance.
    • African goods had been traded in Europe for centuries through Muslim traders in North Africa. European countries began trading directly with Africa in the 15th century. The main goods traded in the early period were gold, ivory, woods (to make dye) and pepper. In the 15th and 16th centuries the buying of enslaved Africans was a small part of the trade with Africa, they were used as domestic servants. There was no great demand for slave labour at that time.
    • This began to change in the 17th century. Europeans were starting to inhabit, or colonise , the islands of the Caribbean and the mainland of North and South America. Bristol’s Admiral Sir William Penn, took Jamaica from the Spanish who had colonised it previously. British settlers moved to the island. Such newcomers may have started by growing food, but they began to grow crops to sell. Large estates developed, called plantations which were devoted to growing sugar or tobacco for sale to Europe.
    • Before 1698 the Royal African Company, a trading company based in London, had control (a monopoly ) in Britain on all trade with Africa. With this monopoly, only ships owned by the Company could trade for gold, ivory, wood for dye, spices and slaves. Any other companies or merchants trading with Africa would have been acting illegally. With their international trade contacts, Bristol merchants were well-placed to enter the African trade.
    • In 1698, after much pressure from smaller ports around Britain, such as Bristol, Liverpool and Lancaster, the Royal African Company control over the trade for slaves was broken. Local shipbuilding yards in Bristol, would have been involved in fitting out ships for the trade.
    • In 1698, Bristol’s first slave ship, called the Beginning and owned by Stephen Baker, sailed from Bristol to the African coast. The captain purchased a number of enslaved Africans, and delivered them to the island of Jamaica, in the Caribbean. There they were sold and put to work on the plantations.
  • Many ships followed, such as the Southwell frigate , which made two slave voyages from Bristol in 1746 and 1748. The ship was owned by a group of Bristol merchants, Michael Beecher & Co, James Laroche, Martin French and William Miller & Co. In 1746, the ship delivered 629 enslaved Africans to the Caribbean islands of Jamaica and Antigua. It was reported that 150 died crossing the Atlantic Ocean, probably due to sickness because of the harsh conditions. In 1748, on a voyage to Angola, West Africa, the captain was instructed to buy 500 slaves. It is not known how many he did buy, but only 284 enslaved Africans were delivered to America.
    • The transatlantic slave trade, so-called because of the route taken by the slave ships across the Atlantic Ocean from Africa to the Caribbean and North America, had an enormous effect on Bristol. Between 1698 and 1807, a known 2,108 ships left Bristol for Africa to exchange goods for enslaved Africans and take them to the Caribbean. Many other English and European ports of the time were also involved in the trade, such as London and Liverpool in Britain and Nantes in France. Bristol was a wealthy city and trading port before its involvement with the transatlantic slave trade. The profits from the trade made it wealthier.

  • From Africa to America

    • Many British ships made the journey to West Africa to trade for enslaved African people. Once on board, the enslaved Africans would be taken across the Atlantic Ocean to the Americas where they would be sold to the plantation owners who needed them to work on the plantations there. The ships would then load up with new cargo for the last leg of the journey back to Britain. They would be taking back goods (such as sugar and tobacco) that were grown by the slaves on the plantations. Life on board the slave ships was harsh.The captains were often cruel. The enslaved Africans and the crew suffered from the poor conditions and treatment. Disease was common and many could die on the journey.
  • From America to Bristol

    • The last leg of the triangular trade was the return back to Bristol, this is known as the ‘return passage’ . The slave ships would have left Bristol many months before for West Africa. Once there they traded for enslaved Africans, whom they then took across the Atlantic Ocean to the European-owned plantations in America and the Caribbean. Once they had sold their cargo of slaves, the ships crossed the Atlantic Ocean again on their journey back to Bristol. This time the ships’ holds were filled, not with human beings, but with barrels of sugar, rum or tobacco. These had been produced by the slaves on the plantations and were brought back to Bristol to be processed in factories and then sold in shops. Pictured here is the front page of an atlas from 1775. The illustration shows several barrels on a Caribbean beach waiting to be collected and loaded onto a ship going to Europe. The barrels would contain things such as sugar and rum.
    • The ships sailed back from different places in the Caribbean and America, where they would have bought other goods aside from the usual sugar, rum and tobacco. Depending where they sailed from, they might also be carrying rice, indigo dye, timber, pimento (a type of pepper), ginger, cocoa, coffee or bales of cotton. Sometimes a ship picked up other cargoes whilst in Africa, as well as enslaved Africans, and brought it all the way back to Bristol via the Caribbean. These were things such as wood, gold, palm oil and ivory, which all got a good price back at home.
  • The Places Involved

    • Africa was the source for the millions of slaves shipped across the Atlantic Ocean between the 15th and the 19th centuries. It was also the source for slaves who were shipped north and east to the Arab world from the 7th century. Europeans rarely went further into Africa than the coastal areas.
    • Before the Europeans even knew of Africa, it was a rich and varied continent with many different cultures and civilisations. At this time, the Europeans thought that they were the only truly civilised people. Due to ignorance and fear, they never came to acknowledge the sophistication of African cultures and civilisations.
    • Art Culture and Technology:- West African craftspeople produced a wide range of sophisticated items. Brass objects were made by the brassworkers’ guild in the city of Benin, part of what is today Nigeria. Guilds were professional bodies set up for different craftspeople. The gold ornaments made by the goldsmiths of the Asante people show the high level of technological expertise in working gold. Gold was mined in the area where the Asante lived (now Ghana, West Africa). Copper was called the ‘red gold’ of Africa because it was so highly prized by Africans. It was mined in the modern-day states of Mauritania, Mali and Niger, and in Angola and Zaire. Mining the copper was hard work. From the 14th century brass (a mix or alloy of copper and zinc) was brought into West Africa by European traders. The local metalworkers melted this brass down and used it in addition to the locally mined copper.
    • African Trade Networks:- African gold and other goods reached Europe long before European traders reached Africa. From about AD 650 African goods made their way to Europe through the trade between West Africa and North Africa. The Muslim ‘Moorish’ empire spread from North Africa to southern Europe. Goods bought from the West African traders by the North African Muslim traders were taken into southern Europe. Here they might then have been sold on to Europeans.
    • From about the 7th century AD, sophisticated trade networks were established.
    • The slave trade:- Slavery existed in Africa, but it was not the same type of slavery that the Europeans introduced in the transatlantic slave trade. It was not as commercialised and was not on the same scale. Slaves within Africa lost the protection of their family and their place in society. They or their children, however, might eventually become part of their master’s family. In some cases, within three generations there was no social distinction between people of slave origins and those of free origins. This was very different to the system of chattel slavery, which Europeans introduced. In this system, the status of the slave was passed down through the generations. Once a person was enslaved, their children would also be slaves for their entire lives. This was not usually the case with slaves within Africa.
    • Europe:- Many port towns and cities around Europe joined in the transatlantic slave trade . The traders in the ports hoped to share in the dazzling profits of which they heard. Some nations were involved on a small scale, for example Denmark and Genoa (now part of Italy). Denmark was interested mainly in supplying its one island in the Caribbean with slaves. Denmark did not supply slaves to other (competing) countries’ islands, as some nations did. Genoa supplied slaves to the Spanish plantations for a few years in the 1660s. But the Italian traders seem to have been involved only in the 16th and 17th centuries.
    • The slave trade was dominated by three main players. France, Britain and Portugal were the major slave trading nations. Spain was a major user of slave labour in its Caribbean and South American colonies
    • Britain:- Britain was a major player in the transatlantic slave trade. British ships carried 2,600,000 enslaved Africans in the 18th century to the Caribbean and the Americas. London was the leading British slaving port in the 17th century, with control over the trade until 1698. Bristol overtook London in the 1730s, and Liverpool overtook Bristol in the 1740s. These three ports are the ones commonly associated with the slave trade, but many of the smaller ports around Britain also joined in. Many of these small port towns pulled out of the transatlantic trade in slaves, sugar or tobacco leaving it to the larger ports such as Bristol and Liverpool. This was because they lacked access to the goods, cargoes, finance and experience of the larger ports.
      • Merchants from Birmingham (in the midlands) and Bath (in the south west) for example, invested in slaving voyages out of Bristol. Manufacturing towns, such as Birmingham in the midlands and Manchester in the north of England, sold products as trade goods to the slavers in the port cities. These included goods such as cotton cloth from Manchester, and guns and metal goods from Birmingham.
      • With acknowledgement to the work by Nigel Tattersfield on the Slave Trade from the minor ports of England.
      • West Indies:- when Christopher Columbus landed on the Bahamas in 1492. Over the next 100 years, the islands and the east coast of mainland America were settled by Europeans. They were farming the land, growing crops at first for food, then later for luxury crops to be sold. On the islands, the local people were made to work the land by the invading Europeans. But they were unused to the diseases brought by the Europeans, and quickly died out due to disease, overwork and harsh treatment, and fighting the new settlers.
      • The Europeans had productive plantations but no-one to work them. They brought indentured labourers and transported prisoners from home, but this was not sufficient. As big plantation owners forced out small landowners and started growing labour-intensive sugar, the demand for labour was met by buying African slaves. In 1639 there were 1,000 Africans on the Caribbean island of Barbados.
      • South Americas:- When people talk or write about the transatlantic slave trade , they usually concentrate on what happened in the Caribbean and North America. Usually Central and South America are not included in the story, even though they were involved. Europeans colonised what are known as the Americas. The continent includes the Caribbean, Canada, the USA, and the central and South American countries such as Mexico and Brazil. A mixture of English, French, Spanish and Portugese people travelled across the Atlantic Ocean to settle in the many parts of the Americas.
      • Spain and Portugal colonised parts of Central and South America. Most of the area south of Mexico was owned by Spain or Portugal. The settlers developed a slave economy that is, they used slaves to work on their land. This slave economy was different to that found in the Caribbean islands and in North America. Many more slaves were bought. Many were sent to the gold and silver mines rather than to the plantations. More of the enslaved Africans were able to buy their freedom and work as free men rather than as slaves. But in other ways the slave economy in this part of the Americas was the same as that in the Caribbean islands and North America. Many of the enslaved Africans died on the plantations and at the mines, and more were brought in from Africa to replace them.
      • The East Indies:- After arriving in Africa, the Americas and Asia, European powers wanted to own, or colonise , them. These new continents offered wealth and power to the European countries. Vast areas of the world were divided up and fought over by the Europeans. Britain owned parts of America and the Caribbean, and had strong links with numerous places in Africa and Asia.
      • In the 17 and 18th centuries, the islands of the East Indies in the Indian Ocean were the source of many of the luxury goods which were highly valued in Europe. European powers were colonising this area and the luxury goods which were found there were traded across the world. Limited supplies of these luxury goods meant high prices.
      • Bristol:- The first official reference to Bristol is found on a coin from the time of the Anglo-Saxon king Aethelred II, in the year 911. The name means a settlement by the bridge. The town, later city, of Bristol developed on the banks of the Rivers Avon and Frome. The port of Bristol was well inland from the sea, but it provided a safe harbour and became a major trading port . At the beginning of the 18th century, Bristol was the second most important port in the country after London, and the third largest city.

The People Involved

  • Enslaved People

    • “African peoples have been subjected to many different types of slavery both within Africa and externally. Slavery is an economic system, which relies on the free labour of enslaved people. It denies those people their freedom and what we today call their ‘human rights’ . This may be for a fixed period of time, or, as in the case of the transatlantic slave trade, for life.”
    • “Ottobah Cuguano was from Adjumako, today in modern Ghana in West Africa. He was kidnapped and enslaved in about 1770. He was sold to a plantation owner on the island of Grenada in the Caribbean.”
    • “Within the year, he was rescued from ‘this dreadful captivity and horrible slavery’. He was purchased by a new master, Alexander Campbell, and brought to England. By 1788 he was free, whether by the gift of his owner or by buying it for himself we do not know. He wrote his autobiography, called Thoughts and Sentiments on the Evil and Wicked Traffic of the Slavery and Commerce of the Human Species, which was published in 1787. Cuguano wrote ‘Some of the Africans in my country keep slaves, which they take in war, or for debt …’. Cuguano had been enslaved in his teens, so he had first hand experience of the subject. People were enslaved in Africa for various reasons. They might be prisoners of war taken after fighting between warring states or ethnic groups. They might be people unable to pay back debts and taken by the person to whom money was owed. Slaves might be taken into their master’s household to work and eventually become accepted as part of the family. Or, slaves could be sold by whoever captured them to foreign slave traders from North Africa or Europe.”
    • “At the time when the trade in slaves was occurring, Africans did not have a common identity. They did not think of themselves as Africans, as they might do today. Instead they thought of themselves as members of their own separate ethnic, or cultural, group. Those being sold into slavery would have been seen as ‘outsiders’ from the seller’s own community. Treating outsiders in such a way seemed acceptable.”
  • Traders, Merchants, and Planters

    • “In Bristol there were the ship owners and merchants, as well as slave-ship captains and crew. The ship owners might invest money in a slaving voyage as well as providing the ship. Merchants invested money in slaving voyages, in equipping the ship and in the goods that were traded with Africa. The roles of slave traders, ship owners, and merchants often overlapped. In West Africa, those involved were the caboceers (traders) on the coast and the enslaved Africans who were captured and sold to the slave ships. In the Caribbean islands and the Americas, there were the slave traders’ agents who sold the enslaved Africans and the plantation owners who purchased the enslaved Africans when they arrived in what was known as the ‘New World’ .
  • Sailors:-

    • There were some 2,000 sailors who lived in Bristol by the 1750s. Of these, only the most desperate worked on slave ships. This was because illness, terrible heat and the threat of slave rebellions made the trip to Africa hard. Sailors tried to avoid joining a slaving voyage. Thomas Clarkson campaigned against the slave trade. In order to understand more about the slave trade and those who took part in it, he came to Bristol in 1787. He spoke to many sailors to get an idea of the horrors they went through on the trip to Africa and the Caribbean on slaving voyages. Later Clarkson wrote that ‘Men on their first [slaving] voyages usually dislike the traffic; … but if they went a second or third time, their disposition became … accustomed to carry away men and women by force …’. Clarkson meant that sailors on their first slaving voyage might not have liked the job of taking slaves, but by the second or third voyage they were used to it.
    • By the 1780s many sailors were recruited from the rough drinking taverns on Marsh Street, in Bristol. They were often taken by trickery by the ships captains who were looking for crew to man their slaving ships. This was one of the few ways that the captains could get sailors. The captains would pay pub landlords to help them trick men into joining the slaving voyages. Pub landlords would lend money to sailors so that they could afford to buy drinks. Once the sailor was drunk, the bill was given to them, and the sailor would be unable to pay it or repay the loan from the landlord. The corrupt landlord would then give them a choice. Either the sailor would go to jail, or, to repay the debt, could join the crew of a slaving ship bound for Africa. Most sailors would choose the second option rather than go to jail. The landlords would be paid for their help and so recover their money that way. The sailors would pay the debt from their wages for the voyage.


 The transatlantic slave trade was organised on a three point circuit. Referred to as the triangular trade.  High risk journey, but if it was a good crossing, there was money to be made.  On the website you will find more information under each bullet point listed above, and the map of the three point circuit (shown below) is interactive on the website, you can click on the areas shown on the map to read more information on the slave trade in those areas.  As you can see, it indicates Europe, Africa, South America, the Caribbean Islands, and then back to Bristol in the UK.

Learning Journeys

  • How Slavery Developed
    • From the 11th century ships from Bristol had been involved in transporting children to sell as slaves to Ireland. For most of the Middle Ages (c 1000 to 1453) Bristol was the 2nd richest city after London.  Ships from Bristol traded mainly with Ireland, France, Spain and Portugal. They brought back wine, olive oil and fish. They also visited  in the North African coast, the Azores, Canary Islands and Madeira in the Atlantic Ocean off North Africa, Hamburg,Venice, Holland and North East Europe.
    • From 1440s the Portuguese had traded in slaves from Africa, and after 1600 merchants from Holland and London joined.
    • Initially the Royal African Company had merchants from London, who had sole rights to trade in slaves.
  • John Pinney
    • “There were many people in Bristol who benefitted from the ‘Africa Trade’. A sea captain filling his ship with slaves to transport across the Atlantic Ocean was paid for his work. The businessmen responsible for funding a slave ship voyage took the profits. Small businesses and craftsmen were paid for supplying the trade goods exchanged for enslaved Africans. The dockworkers who unloaded the cargoes of sugar, rum and cotton from the plantations in the Americas were paid for their days work. Many people throughout Britain, not only in the ports, benefitted directly from this trade in human ‘cargo’. It could be argued that, indirectly, so did everyone else in the country. The wealth gained through this trade was used to fund new ships, buildings, charitable works and industrial projects in Britain. It may have helped to fuel the industrial revolution.”
    • There is more information on the PortCities Bristol website, including information on Reverend John Pinney’s family, particularly his son who took part in a rebellion and who was subsequently banished from Great Britain for 15 years. The difference in how that man was ‘punished’ by being banned from the country (to the island of Nevis in the Caribbean) but laden with resources to survive, compared to the millions of slaves is stark.  John Pinney kept detailed notes of his business activities useful for us all to read now.  No change in the legal system and how certain groups of people are treated within it.
  • The Georgian House
    • “The Georgian House at 7 Great George Street, Bristol, is today furnished as a period townhouse. It shows what life was like for a wealthy business man towards the end of the Georgian period (1714-1830). The house was built in about 1790 by John Pinney. He owned plantations on the Caribbean island of Nevis. Using slave labour, sugar cane was grown on his land. After settling in Bristol, managers were employed to run the plantations and John Pinney started a company trading in sugar.”
  • The Island of Nevis
    • “The climate throughout the Caribbean and southern areas of the USAproved to be excellent for cultivating new money-making crops such as sugar cane, tobacco and cotton. The volcanic soil, rich in nutrients, meant that crops grew quickly. Sometimes more than one crop could be harvested in a year. Here on Nevis men from the west country of England set up small plantations growing sugar cane. Indentured labourers went out to work on the plantations, under contract for a fixed number of years. Convicted criminals, such as Azariah Pinney, chose a term of exile on the islands instead of more serious punishments. Work on the plantations was very hard and with the heat and new diseases, such as malaria, many died. In the French areas of the neighbouring island of St Kitts, by 1625, the French were already making use of slaves from Africa; the English did not take long to follow their lead.”


Extracts from the next 2 podcasts

The debate about reparations has, conveniently, been branded extreme and unrealistic by those who don’t want to pay them.

We happily listen to the heir to the throne – who on Windrush Day said Britain owed a “debt of gratitude” to the people of the Caribbean – while ignoring the reality that what Britain owes is, in fact, a straight-up financial debt.

The case is unequivocal. The African American intellectual WEB Du Bois was right when he described the enslavement of at least 12 million Africans as “the sum of all villainies, the cause of all sorrow, the root of all prejudice”.

In the Caribbean, Britain received, in the words of Nobel prize-winning economist Arthur Lewis, 200 years of free labour – from over 15 million black people, and those who were indentured from India.


Much of the third podcast in this series will look at the Global Movement Approach to seeking Reparation.  It is growing movement and from my brief foray into this subject, a global approach seems to be stronger and the likelihood of success higher.  The alternative is to coral the individual groups seeking reparation to the whim and control of the governing bodies in their countries.  The UK is I am sure replicates the standard classic responses it gives to such matters.  Express regret, and contort their expressions into one that is meant to replicate interest and sorrow, and then the aristocrat concerns returns to their homes and businesses that many of them acquired on the backs of slaves.

How should reparations be defined?     Global Movement Approach

 It is argued by some professionals and researchers that reparations should not only be defined in terms of “financial compensation” but should additionally include various types of systemic change that focus on physical and psychological harms.

  • While reparations advocacy has been around in one form or another for more than a century, the newer, more global movement comes as an era of globalization has helped bring once disjointed parts of the African diaspora into a more universal fight for reparations for the descendants of enslaved people.

The case for British slavery reparations can no longer be ignored.   The standard response of “regret” no longer cuts it.

This is a summary overview of a complex set of events over centuries.  The series of 3 podcast episodes and a closing overview later in the year is a grain a sand in terms of coverage.  I hope that you find the list of references useful at the end of the series, which will enable you to embark on months and years of research dependant upon how deep you wish to search.

I would like to give credit to Port Cities Bristol website for the foundation of this podcast series, particularly this first in the series of 3.

See you all next week.

Ivy Barrow


End Note

[1] Expiation = the act of making amends or reparation for guilt or wrongdoing, atonement

Reference Sources – Mainly Relevant to this podcast – ie Part One

Bristol and Transatlantic Slavery | PortCities Bristol (discoveringbristol.org.uk)    Highly recommend this developing site.  Work your way through the “Explore this Site” text box on the left of the page.  Most of those headings are populated.  The other tabs at the top of the page relating to the other cities named, are not yet populated.  The Bristol page is a good place to start the research journey.











Please note:- There are over 25 reference sources  still to be listed, but as they relate to the next two podcasts, I will publish more with Part Two and the complete list, including links specifically discussing the Global Approach Movement in terms of seeking Reparation, in Part Three.   I do not want to spoil any of the information from each podcast, before it is published on various platforms each Sunday evening.